Desgarro perineal                                                     Perineal tear

Wang H, et al. The effect of “hands on” techniques on obstetric perineal laceration: A structured review of the literature. Women Birth. 2015; 28(3):194-8.

LaCross A, et al. Obstetric anal sphincter injury and anal

incontinence following vaginal birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2015 ; 60(1):37-47.

Rezaei R, et al. A comparison of the “hands-off” and “hands-on” methods to reduce perineal lacerations: a randomised clinical trial. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2014; 64(6):425-9.

Priddis H, Dahlen H, Schmied V. Women's experiences following severe perineal trauma: a meta-ethnographic synthesis. J Adv Nurs. 2012 Oct 12. doi:10.1111/jan.12005.

Bick DE, Ismail KM, Macdonald S, Thomas P, Tohill S, Kettle C. How good are we at implementing evidence to support the management of birth related perineal trauma? A UK wide survey of midwifery practice. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2012 12:57.

Overgaard C, Fenger-Grøn M, Sandall J. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units: does the effect of place of birth differ with level of social disadvantage? BMC Public Health. 2012 12:478.

Dahlen HG. Perineal warm compress reduces risk of third- and fourth- degree tears and should be part of second stage care. Evid Based Nurs. 2012 15(4):103-4.

Johnson A, Thakar R, Sultan AH. Obstetric perineal wound infection: is there underreporting? Br J Nurs. 2012 21(5):S28, S30, S32-5.

Lindgren HE, Brink Å, Klinberg-Allvin M. Fear causes tears - perineal injuries in home birth settings. A Swedish interview study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2011 11:6.

Rathfisch G, Dikencik BK, Kizilkaya Beji N, Comert N, Tekirdag AI, Kadioglu A. Effects of perineal trauma on postpartum sexual function. J Adv Nurs. 2010 66(12):2640-9.

Halperin O, Raz I, Ben-Gal L, Or-Chen K, Granot M. Prediction of perineal trauma during childbirth by assessment of striae gravidarum score. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010 39(3):292-7.

De Jonge A, Van Diem MT, Scheepers PL, Buitendijk SE, Lagro-Janssen AL. Risk of perineal damage is not a reason to discourage a sitting birthing position: a secondary analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2010 64(5):611-8.

Browne M, Jacobs M, Lahiff M, Miller S. Perineal injury in nulliparous women giving birth at a community hospital: reduced risk in births attended by certified nurse-midwives. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2010 55(3):243-9.

Bick DE, Kettle C, Macdonald S, Thomas PW, Hills RK, Ismail KM. Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS): protocol for a matched pair cluster trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2010 10:10.

Halperin O, Raz I, Ben-Gal L, Or-Chen K, Granot M. Prediction of perineal trauma during childbirth by assessment of striae gravidarum score. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2010 39(3):292-7.

Cioffi JM, Swain J, Arundell F. The decision to suture after childbirth: cues, related factors, knowledge and experience used by midwives. Midwifery. 2010 26(2):246-5.

Colacioppo PM, Gonzalez Riesco ML. Effectiveness of local anaesthetics with and without vasoconstrictors for perineal repair during spontaneous delivery: double-blind randomised controlled trial. Midwifery. 2009 25(1):88-95.

Rogers RG, Borders N, Leeman LM, Albers LL. Does spontaneous genital tract trauma impact postpartum sexual function? J Midwifery Womens Health. 2009 54(2):98-103.

Lai ML, Lin KC, Li HY, Shey KS, Gau ML. Effects of delayed pushing during the second stage of labor on postpartum fatigue and birth outcomes in nulliparous women. J Nurs Res. 2009 17(1):62-72.

Janssen PA, Saxell L, Page LA, Klein MC, Liston RM, Lee SK. Outcomes of planned home birth with registered midwife versus planned hospital birth with midwife or physician. CMAJ. 2009 181(6-7):377-83. Erratum in: CMAJ. 2009 Oct 27;181(9):617.

Yildizhan R, Yildizhan B, Sahin S, Suer N. Comparison of the efficacy of diclofenac and indomethacin suppositories in treating perineal pain after episiotomy or laceration: a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 280(5):735-8.

Scarabotto LB, Riesco ML. Use of hyaluronidase to prevent perineal trauma during spontaneous delivery: a pilot study. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2008 53(4):353-61.

Kindberg S, Stehouwer M, Hvidman L, Henriksen TB. Postpartum perineal repair performed by midwives: a randomised trial comparing two suture techniques leaving the skin unsutured. BJOG. 2008 115(4):472-9.

Dahlen HG, Homer CS. What are the views of midwives in relation to perineal repair? Women Birth. 2008 21(1):27-35.

Hodnett ED. WITHDRAWN: Continuity of caregivers for care during pregnancy and childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 (4):CD000062.

Williams A, Herron-Marx S, Carolyn H. The prevalence of enduring postnatal perineal morbidity and its relationship to perineal trauma. Midwifery. 2007 23(4):392-403.

Wickham S. Research unwrapped. Preventing perineal damage in childbirth. Pract Midwife. 2007 10(2):37-9.

Hastings-Tolsma M, Vincent D, Emeis C, Francisco T. Getting through birth in one piece: protecting the perineum. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007 32(3):158-64.

Leeman LM, Rogers RG, Greulich B, Albers LL. Do unsutured second-degree perineal lacerations affect postpartum functional outcomes? J Am Board Fam Med. 2007 20(5):451-7.

Albers LL, Borders N. Minimizing genital tract trauma and related pain following spontaneous vaginal birth. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007 52(3):246-53.

Albers LL, Migliaccio L, Bedrick EJ, Teaf D, Peralta P. Does epidural analgesia affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal births? J Midwifery Womens Health. 2007 52(1):31-6.

Albers LL, Greulich B, Peralta P. Body mass index, midwifery intrapartum care, and childbirth lacerations. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006 51(4):249-53.

Albers LL, Sedler KD, Bedrick EJ, Teaf D, Peralta P. Factors related to genital tract trauma in normal spontaneous vaginal births. Birth. 2006 33(2):94-100.

de Souza Caroci da Costa A, Gonzalez Riesco ML. A comparison of "hands off" versus "hands on" techniques for decreasing perineal lacerations during birth. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2006 51(2):106-11.

Albers LL, Sedler KD, Bedrick EJ, Teaf D, Peralta P. Midwifery care measures in the second stage of labor and reduction of genital tract trauma at birth: a randomized trial. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2005 50(5):365-72.

Simpson KR, James DC. Effects of immediate versus delayed pushing during second-stage labor on fetal well-being: a randomized clinical trial. Nurs Res. 2005 54(3):149-57.

Hartmann K, Viswanathan M, Palmieri R, Gartlehner G, Thorp J Jr, Lohr KN. Outcomes of routine episiotomy: a systematic review. JAMA. 2005 293(17):2141-8.

Wickham S. Is prevention always the best cure? Midwifery Today Int Midwife. 2003 65:16-7.

Bruce E. Everything you need to know to prevent perineal tearing. Midwifery Today Int Midwife. 2003 65:10-3.

Signorello LB, Harlow BL, Chekos AK, Repke JT. Postpartum sexual functioning and its relationship to perineal trauma: a retrospective cohort study of primiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 184(5):881-8.

Lundquist M, Olsson A, Nissen E, Norman M. Is it necessary to suture all lacerations after a vaginal delivery? Birth. 2000 27(2):79-85. 

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