Úlcera por presión grado I                                                             Pressure sore stage I  

Demarré L, Verhaeghe S, Van Hecke A, Grypdonck M, Clays E, Vanderwee K, Beeckman D. The effectiveness of three types of alternating pressure air mattresses in the prevention of pressure ulcers in Belgian hospitals. Res Nurs Health. 2013; 36(5):439-52. doi: 10.1002/nur.21557.

Tzeng HM, Grandy GA, Yin CY. Staff response time to call lights and unit-acquired pressure ulcer rates in adult inpatient acute care units. Contemp Nurse. 2013 Jul 1.

Doughty D. Differential assessment of trunk wounds: pressure ulceration versus incontinence associated dermatitis versus intertriginous dermatitis. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012;58(4):20-2.

Guihan M, Bates-Jenson BM, Chun S, Parachuri R, Chin AS, McCreath H. Assessingthe feasibility of subepidermal moisture to predict erythema and stage 1 pressure ulcers in persons with spinal cord injury: a pilot study. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012; 35(1):46-52.

Alvey B, Hennen N, Heard H. Improving accuracy of pressure ulcer staging and documentation using a computerized clinical decision support system. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012 Nov-Dec;39(6):607-12.

Farid KJ, Winkelman C, Rizkala A, Jones K. Using temperature of pressure-related intact discolored areas of skin to detect deep tissue injury: an observational, retrospective, correlational study. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2012; 58(8):20-31.

Young DL, Shen JJ, Estocado N, Landers MR. Financial impact of improved pressure ulcer staging in the acute hospital with use of a new tool, the NE1 Wound Assessment Tool. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2012; 25(4):158-66.

Brindle CT, Wegelin JA. Prophylactic dressing application to reduce pressure ulcer formation in cardiac surgery patients. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012; 39(2):133-42.

Jiang LP, Tu Q, Wang Y, Zhang E. Ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced histological changes affecting early stage pressure ulcer development in a rat model. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2011; 57(2):55-60.

Sánchez-Rubio MP, Blanco-Zapata RM, San Sebastián-Domínguez JA, Merino-Corral I, Pérez-Del Pecho MC, Arribas-Hernández FJ. Adverse effects prevalence study: pressure ulcers in an acute hospital. Enferm Clin. 2010; 20(6):355-9.

 

Úlcera por presión grado II                                                             Pressure sore stage II 

Meddings JA, Reichert H, Hofer T, McMahon LF Jr. Hospital report cards for hospital-acquired pressure ulcers: how good are the grades? Ann Intern Med. 2013; 159(8):505-13. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-159-8-201310150-00003.

Manzano F, Pérez AM, Colmenero M, Aguilar MM, Sánchez-Cantalejo E, Reche AM, et al. Comparison of alternating pressure mattresses and overlays for prevention of pressure ulcers in ventilated intensive care patients: a quasi-experimental study. J Adv Nurs. 2013; 69(9):2099-106. doi: 10.1111/jan.12077.

Mizokami F, Furuta K, Utani A, Isogai Z. Definitions of the physical properties of pressure ulcers and characterisation of their regional variance. Int Wound J. 2013 Oct;10(5):606-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2012.01030.x.

Theilla M, Schwartz B, Cohen J, Shapiro H, Anbar R, Singer P. Impact of a nutritional formula enriched in fish oil and micronutrients on pressure ulcers in critical care patients. Am J Crit Care. 2012 Jul;21(4):e102-9. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2012187.

Demarré L, Beeckman D, Vanderwee K, Defloor T, Grypdonck M, Verhaeghe S. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a

randomised-controlled clinical trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012; 49(4):416-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.10.007.

Manzano F, Navarro MJ, Roldán D, Moral MA, Leyva I, Guerrero C, Sanchez MA, Colmenero M, Fernández-Mondejar E; Granada UPP Group. Pressure ulcer incidence and risk factors in ventilated intensive care patients. J Crit Care. 2010; 25(3):469-76.

Rathore FA, New PW, Waheed A. Pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury: an unusual site and etiology. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009; 88(7):587-90.

Health Quality Ontario. Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2009; 9(3):1-203.

Heyman H, Van De Looverbosch DE, Meijer EP, Schols JM. Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents. J Wound Care. 2008; 17(11):476-8, 480.

Dehlin O, Elmståhl S, Gottrup F. Monochromatic phototherapy: effective treatment for grade II chronic pressure ulcers in elderly patients. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2007; 19(6):478-83. 

Úlcera por presión grado III                                                           Pressure sore stage III  

Minematsu T, Nakagami G, Yamamoto Y, Kanazawa T, Huang L, Koyanagi H, et al. Wound blotting: a convenient biochemical assessment tool for protein components in exudate of chronic wounds. Wound Repair Regen. 2013; 21(2):329-34. doi: 10.1111/wrr.12017.

Iizaka S, Sanada H, Nakagami G, Koyanagi H, Konya C, Sugama J. Quantitative estimation of exudate volume for full-thickness pressure ulcers: the ESTimation method. J Wound Care. 2011 Oct;20(10):453-4, 458-63.

Zrelak PA, Utter GH, Tancredi DJ, Mayer LG, Cerese J, Cuny J, Romano PS. How Accurate is the AHRQ Patient Safety Indicator for Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer in a National Sample of Records? J Healthc Qual. 2013 Oct 1. doi: 10.1111/jhq.12052. [Epub ahead of print].

Waycaster C, Milne CT. Clinical and economic benefit of enzymatic debridement of pressure ulcers compared to autolytic debridement with a hydrogel dressing. J Med Econ. 2013; 16(7):976-86. doi: 10.3111/13696998.2013.807268.

Visscher M, King A, Nie AM, Schaffer P, Taylor T, Pruitt D, et al. A quality-improvement collaborative project to reduce pressure ulcers in PICUs. Pediatrics. 2013; 131(6):e1950-60. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1626.

Stafiej JM, Szewczyk MT. Treatment of full-thickness pressure ulcers with a gentamicin sponge: a case report. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012; 39(3):331-41.

Lee TT, Lin KC, Mills ME, Kuo YH. Factors related to the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Comput Inform Nurs. 2012; 30(9):489-95.

Recio AC, Felter CE, Schneider AC, McDonald JW. High-voltage electrical stimulation for the management of stage III and IV pressure ulcers among adults with spinal cord injury: demonstration of its utility for recalcitrant wounds below the level of injury. J Spinal Cord Med. 2012; 35(1):58-63.

Gunningberg L, Donaldson N, Aydin C, Idvall E. Exploring variation in pressure ulcer prevalence in Sweden and the USA: benchmarking in action. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012;18(4):904-10.

Bito S, Mizuhara A, Oonishi S, Takeuchi K, Suzuki M, Akiyama K, et al. Randomised controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of wrap therapy for wound healing acceleration in patients with NPUAP stage II and III pressure

ulcer. BMJ Open. 2012 Jan 5;2:e000371. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000371.

Terris DD, Woo C, Jarczok MN, Ho CH. Comparison of in-person and digital photograph assessment of stage III and IV pressure ulcers among veterans with spinal cord injuries. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011;48(3):215-24.

Bell MA. Severe indwelling urinary catheter-associated urethral erosion in four elderly men. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2010; 56(12):36-9.

Iizaka S, Sanada H, Nakagami G, Sekine R, Koyanagi H, Konya C, Sugama J. Estimation of protein loss from wound fluid in older patients with severe pressure ulcers. Nutrition. 2010; 26(9):890-5.

Cowan LJ, Stechmiller J. Prevalence of wet-to-dry dressings in wound care. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2009; 22(12):567-73.

Clegg A, Kring D, Plemmons J, Richbourg L. North Carolina wound nurses examine heel pressure ulcers. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009; 36(6):635-9. 

Úlcera por presión grado IV                                                            Pressure sore stage IV 

Gefen A, Farid KJ, Shaywitz I. A review of deep tissue injury development, detection, and prevention: shear savvy. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(2):26-35.

Chuangsuwanich A, Chortrakarnkij P, Kangwanpoom J. Cost-effectiveness analysis in comparing alginate silver dressing with silver zinc sulfadiazine cream in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Arch Plast Surg. 2013; 40(5):589-96. doi: 10.5999/aps.2013.40.5.589.

Navarro Susana Postigo, Puerta Francisco Rivera. Innovation in pressure ulcer care: application of electrotherapy. Rev Enferm. 2013; 36(2):60-4.

Bourassa-Moreau É, Mac-Thiong JM, Ehrmann Feldman D, Thompson C, Parent S. Complications in acute phase hospitalization of traumatic spinal cord injury: does surgical timing matter? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013; 74(3):849-54. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31827e1381.

Mizokami F, Furuta K, Utani A, Isogai Z. Definitions of the physical properties of pressure ulcers and characterisation of their regional variance. Int Wound J. 2013; 10(5):606-11.

Ashby RL, Dumville JC, Soares MO, McGinnis E, Stubbs N, Torgerson DJ, Cullum N. A pilot randomised controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy to treat grade III/IV pressure ulcers [ISRCTN69032034]. Trials. 2012; 13:119.

Biglari B, vd Linden PH, Simon A, Aytac S, Gerner HJ, Moghaddam A. Use of Medihoney as a non-surgical therapy for chronic pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2012; 50(2):165-9.

Chuangsuwanich A, Charnsanti O, Lohsiriwat V, Kangwanpoom C, Thong-In N. The efficacy of silver mesh dressing compared with silver sulfadiazine cream for the treatment of pressure ulcers. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011; 94(5):559-65.

Mittmann N, Chan BC, Craven BC, Isogai PK, Houghton P. nArch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011; 92(6):866-72.

Payne WG, Bhalla R, Hill DP, Pierpont YN, Robson MC. Wound healing trajectories to determine pressure ulcer treatment efficacy. Eplasty. 2011; 11:e1.

Chen X, Jiang Z, Chen Z, Wang D. Application of skin traction for surgical treatment of grade IV pressure sore: a clinical report of 160 cases. Spinal Cord. 2011; 49(1):76-80.

Srivastava A, Gupta A, Taly AB, Murali T. Surgical management of pressure ulcers during inpatient neurologic rehabilitation: outcomes for patients with spinal cord disease. J Spinal Cord Med. 2009;32(2):125-31.

Anguera Saperas L, Colodrero Díaz E, García Grau N, Mateo Zapata E, Roca Biosca A, Velasco Guillén MC. Education as a key piece in the prevention and good course of pressure ulcers. Enferm Intensiva. 2009; 20(1):19-26.

Alto riesgo de úlceras por presión                                                   High risk of pressure sores  

Pokorny ME, Rose MA, Watkins F, Swanson M, Kirkpatrick MK, Wu Q. The relationship between pressure ulcer prevalence, body mass index, and braden scales and subscales: a further analysis. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2014; 27(1):26-30. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000437641.22278.67.

Van Gaal BG, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes-de Groot JA, Defloor T, Habets H, Voss A,  van Achterberg T, Koopmans RT. Concurrent Incidence of Adverse Events in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2013 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12063.

Smith A, McNichol LL, Amos MA, Mueller G, Griffin T, Davis J, et al. A retrospective, nonrandomized, beforeand- after study of the effect of linens constructed of synthetic silk-like fabric on pressure ulcer incidence. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(4):28-34.

Rodrigues JJ, Pedro LM, Vardasca T, de la Torre-Díez I, Martins HM. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration. Health Informatics J. 2013; 19(4):300-11. doi: 10.1177/1460458212474909.

van Rijswijk L, Beitz JM. Creating a pressure ulcer prevention algorithm: systematic review and face validation. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(11):28-40.

Weissenberger-Leduc M, Zmaritz M. Nursing care for the elderly with hip fracture in an acute care hospital. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013; 163(19-20):468-475.

Sving E, Idvall E, Högberg H, Gunningberg L. Factors contributing to evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention. A cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Oct 4. pii: S0020-7489(13)00268-X. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.09.007.

Tsao WY, Lo SF, Harmod T, Lee RP. A comparison of the efficacy of different wound dressing management techniques in preventing pressure ulcers. Hu Li Za Zhi. 2013; 60(4):65-75. doi: 10.6224/JN.60.3.65.

Moore ZE, Webster J. Dressings and topical agents for preventing pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 8:CD009362. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009362.pub2.

Costa A, Cunha M. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in person victim of trauma: predisposing factors. Servir. 2013; 58(1-2):60-77.

Ülker Efteli E, Yapucu Günes Ü. A prospective, descriptive study of risk factors related to pressure ulcer development among patients in intensive care units. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(7):22-7.

Balzer K, Köpke S, Lühmann D, Haastert B, Kottner J, Meyer G. Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013; 50(8):1136-50.

Tescher AN, Branda ME, Byrne TJ, Naessens JM. All at-risk patients are not created equal: analysis of Braden pressure ulcer risk scores to identify specific risks. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012; 39(3):282-91. 

Riesgo moderado de úlcera por presión                                       Moderate risk of pressure sores  

Pokorny ME, Rose MA, Watkins F, Swanson M, Kirkpatrick MK, Wu Q. The relationship between pressure ulcer prevalence, body mass index, and braden scales and subscales: a further analysis. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2014; 27(1):26-30. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000437641.22278.67.

Van Gaal BG, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes-de Groot JA, Defloor T, Habets H, Voss A,  van Achterberg T, Koopmans RT. Concurrent Incidence of Adverse Events in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2013 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12063.

Smith A, McNichol LL, Amos MA, Mueller G, Griffin T, Davis J, et al. A retrospective, nonrandomized, beforeand- after study of the effect of linens constructed of synthetic silk-like fabric on pressure ulcer incidence. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(4):28-34.

Rodrigues JJ, Pedro LM, Vardasca T, de la Torre-Díez I, Martins HM. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration. Health Informatics J. 2013; 19(4):300-11. doi: 10.1177/1460458212474909.

van Rijswijk L, Beitz JM. Creating a pressure ulcer prevention algorithm: systematic review and face validation. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(11):28-40.

Weissenberger-Leduc M, Zmaritz M. Nursing care for the elderly with hip fracture in an acute care hospital. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013; 163(19-20):468-475.

Sving E, Idvall E, Högberg H, Gunningberg L. Factors contributing to evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention. A cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Oct 4. pii: S0020-7489(13)00268-X. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.09.007.

Tsao WY, Lo SF, Harmod T, Lee RP. A comparison of the efficacy of different wound dressing management techniques in preventing pressure ulcers. Hu Li Za Zhi. 2013; 60(4):65-75. doi: 10.6224/JN.60.3.65.

Moore ZE, Webster J. Dressings and topical agents for preventing pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 8:CD009362. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009362.pub2.

Costa A, Cunha M. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in person victim of trauma: predisposing factors. Servir. 2013; 58(1-2):60-77.

Ülker Efteli E, Yapucu Günes Ü. A prospective, descriptive study of risk factors related to pressure ulcer development among patients in intensive care units. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(7):22-7.

Balzer K, Köpke S, Lühmann D, Haastert B, Kottner J, Meyer G. Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013; 50(8):1136-50.

Tescher AN, Branda ME, Byrne TJ, Naessens JM. All at-risk patients are not created equal: analysis of Braden pressure ulcer risk scores to identify specific risks. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012; 39(3):282-91. 

Bajo riesgo de úlcera por presión                                                   Low risk of pressure sores 

Pokorny ME, Rose MA, Watkins F, Swanson M, Kirkpatrick MK, Wu Q. The relationship between pressure ulcer prevalence, body mass index, and braden scales and subscales: a further analysis. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2014; 27(1):26-30. doi: 10.1097/01.ASW.0000437641.22278.67.

Van Gaal BG, Schoonhoven L, Mintjes-de Groot JA, Defloor T, Habets H, Voss A,  van Achterberg T, Koopmans RT. Concurrent Incidence of Adverse Events in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2013 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12063.

Smith A, McNichol LL, Amos MA, Mueller G, Griffin T, Davis J, et al. A retrospective, nonrandomized, beforeand- after study of the effect of linens constructed of synthetic silk-like fabric on pressure ulcer incidence. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(4):28-34.

Rodrigues JJ, Pedro LM, Vardasca T, de la Torre-Díez I, Martins HM. Mobile health platform for pressure ulcer monitoring with electronic health record integration. Health Informatics J. 2013; 19(4):300-11. doi: 10.1177/1460458212474909.

van Rijswijk L, Beitz JM. Creating a pressure ulcer prevention algorithm: systematic review and face validation. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(11):28-40.

Weissenberger-Leduc M, Zmaritz M. Nursing care for the elderly with hip fracture in an acute care hospital. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2013; 163(19-20):468-475.

Sving E, Idvall E, Högberg H, Gunningberg L. Factors contributing to evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention. A cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013 Oct 4. pii: S0020-7489(13)00268-X. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.09.007.

Tsao WY, Lo SF, Harmod T, Lee RP. A comparison of the efficacy of different wound dressing management techniques in preventing pressure ulcers. Hu Li Za Zhi. 2013; 60(4):65-75. doi: 10.6224/JN.60.3.65.

Moore ZE, Webster J. Dressings and topical agents for preventing pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013; 8:CD009362. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009362.pub2.

Costa A, Cunha M. Prevalence of pressure ulcers in person victim of trauma: predisposing factors. Servir. 2013; 58(1-2):60-77.

Ülker Efteli E, Yapucu Günes Ü. A prospective, descriptive study of risk factors related to pressure ulcer development among patients in intensive care units. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2013; 59(7):22-7.

Balzer K, Köpke S, Lühmann D, Haastert B, Kottner J, Meyer G. Designing trials for pressure ulcer risk assessment research: methodological challenges. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013; 50(8):1136-50.

Tescher AN, Branda ME, Byrne TJ, Naessens JM. All at-risk patients are not created equal: analysis of Braden pressure ulcer risk scores to identify specific risks. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2012; 39(3):282-91

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